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Test 2: Joints, Muscles, and Muscle Tissue
Part 1: Dichotomous
1. Which of the following is an example of an eccentric exercise?
Standing up on your tip toes
Slowly lowering yourself towards the ground while doing a pushup
2. Which of the following choices describes skeletal muscles
Powerful but easily fatigued
Produce slow sustained contractions and are found in the walls of hollow organs
3. What is the final trigger for muscle contraction?
An action potential from a neuron
4. Freely moveable joints are also called
5. Which structure is present in all synovial joints?
A joint cavity
6. Which of the following is an autoimmune disorder?
7. Which of the following can be voluntarily controlled
8. Which tissue is striated
9. Striations in skeletal muscle tissue are due to
Alternating bands of Light I bands and Dark A bands
Gaps between the cell membranes of adjacent muscle fibers
10. The connective tissue covering that encloses the sarcolemma of an individual muscle fiber is called the
11. A fascicle is a
Bundle of muscle fibers enclosed by a connective tissue sheath
Bundle of myofibrils enclosed by a sarcolemma
12. Which region of a sarcomere disappears during a maximal contraction?
The Dark A band
The H zone
13. What is the purpose of the t tubules?
To conduct the action potential produced at the neuromuscular junction deep into the muscle fiber.
To store and release calcium into the sarcoplasm when stimulated
14. What is a motor unit?
A single motor neuron and all of its associated muscle fibers
All of the sarcomeres contained within one myofibril
15. What property of muscle tissue allows it to return to its original length after being stretched?
16. What causes muscle fatigue?
Low dietary calcium intake
Ionic disturbances along the cell membrane
17. Which ATP production pathway would be relied upon heavily during the first 15 seconds of a full sprint?
Direct Phosphorylation Pathway
Aerobic Glycolysis Pathway
18. In terms of a synovial joint, stability increases as mobility_________
19. Which structure is an example of an intracapsular ligament?
ACL (anterior crucate ligament)
MCL (medial Collateral ligament)
20. Where would we expect to find a greater density of mitochondria?
Slow oxidative muscle fibers
Fast Glycotic muscle fibers
21. Which protein blocks Actin’s myosin binding sites in a resting muscle?
22. Which activity would require the recruitment of a greater number of motor units?
Lifting a paperclip
Lifting a bowling ball
23. In the above scenario, which motor units would be activated first?
The smallest motor units
The largest motor units
24. What substance is released into the synaptic cleft after an action potential reaches the end of an axon?
25. What is the name of the early action potential formed in the sarcolemma after it is exposed to acetylcholine at the synaptic cleft?
An end plate potential
26. Which joint would you expect to be more likely to dislocate?
The ulnohumeral (elbow) joint
The Temporomandibular joint
27.When considering the gluteal muscles, you would expect to find higher concentrations of ionic calcium in the intracellular fluid when
Performing a squat
28. What is the only source of fuel for muscle contraction?
29. Where would you expect to find smaller motor units?
The muscles that move your eyes
You Quadriceps (thigh) muscles
30. Under what circumstances would you expect the biceps muscle to be able to produce a greater amount of tension?
In a fully shortened (flexed) position.
At resting length, or at a very slightly lengthened positioned
31. Under optimal circumstances, which pathway can produce ATP for a greater period of time?
Anaerobic (Glycolysis) Pathway
Aerobic (Oxidative) Pathway
32. Because muscle tissue is able to respond to a stimulus (action potential) it is said to be ________
33. What is the fundamental contractile unit of skeletal muscle tissue?
The thin filament
34. Which of the following is an example of a fibrous joint?
35. Which of the following joints would you expect to have 3 degrees of freedom?
The knee (tibiofemoral joint)
The shoulder (glenohumeral joint)
36. What type of connective tissue would you expect to find covering the articular surfaces of a joint?
37. What plane do the motions abduction and adduction occur in?
Frontal (coronal) plane
38. In what position are the ligaments of the knee the tightest?
Full knee extension
Full knee flexion
39. Which layer of the articular capsule secretes synovial fluid?
The fibrous layer
The synovial membrane
40. The walls of the T tubules are a part of the
T or F (Mark A or B on your scantron)
41. During a skeletal muscle contraction, the light I bands shorten. T
42. During a skeletal muscle contraction the Z discs move closer together. T
43. A muscle twitch is an ENTIRE muscle’s response to a single action potential. F
44. Skeletal muscle is a type of epithelial tissue. F
45. Skeletal muscle is more easily fatigued than cardiac muscle. T
46.Unlike cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle does not require nervous system innervation in order to contract. F
47. Gap junctions are found in skeletal muscle, not cardiac muscle. F
48. Larger motor units are capable of producing more tension than smaller motor units T
49. Synovial Joints are usually also synarthrodial. F
50. Most joints of the limbs are diarthrodial. T
51. Most joints of the limbs are synovial. T
52. The elbow (ulnohumeral) joint allows abduction and adduction. F
53. The elbow (ulnohumeral) joint allows movements that occur in the sagittal plane. T
54. Gouty Arthritis is most likely to occur in the glenohumeral joint. F
55. About 80% of a Fast glycotic fiber’s cytoplasm is packed with mitochondria. F
56. Smooth muscle tissue is striated. F
57. No change in muscle length occurs during an isometric contraction. T
58. No change in muscle length occurs during an isotonic contraction. F
59. A marathoner is likely to have a greater percentage of type I fibers than a weightlifter. T
60. The relative percentages of Type I, Type IIa, and Type IIb fibers are permanent, and do not change after birth. F