A & P Source

Your source of A & P Webinars, Study Guides, Quizes, and More!

Joints and Articulations Study Questions

Alright guys, the most important things to know are the different joint classifications.

For example, know the functional and structural classifications, and examples of each.  Also know the sub types of synovial joints (pivot, condylar, saddle, ball and socket) and examples of each. Also know which joints are uniaxial, biaxial, and multiaxial and how this relates to degrees of freedom.

Know what motions occur in each plane

Know the difference between OA, RA, and Gouty Arthritis. Also know who would be more likely to present with these diseases

What is the purpose of bursae and tendon sheaths?

What is the purpose of all of the different synovial joint structures (synovial membrane, articular cartilage, ligaments, etc)

What is the primary contributor to shoulder stability?

Which joints are more likely to dislocate?

In what position are the ligaments of the knee and hip tightest?

7 comments on “Joints and Articulations Study Questions

  1. Chris Firek
    November 1, 2013

    Hey Dr. Lohman,

    Happy Friday. I was wondering if you could clarify a little the difference between circumduction and rotation?

    Chris

    • tlohman2
      November 3, 2013

      This video shows everything but circumduction I think. Circumduction is essentially making a cone with your upper or lower extremity. True circumduction can occur only at ball and socket joints

      • clayton vance
        November 4, 2013

        thanks!!!

  2. Dawn Fausner
    November 3, 2013

    Chapter 8 Study Guide Joints
    All right guys, the most important things to know are the different joint classifications.
    For example, know the functional and structural classifications, and examples of each. Also know the sub types of synovial joints (pivot, condylar, saddle, ball and socket) and examples of each. Also know which joints are uniaxial, biaxial, and multiaxial and how this relates to degrees of freedom. The rotation and movements which the joints are intended have a direct
    1. Joint and Articulation are synonymous.
    2. What functional joint class contains the least mobile joints? Synarthroses – Least movement! Ex: Fibrous joints, Amphiarthroses – slightly movable joints. Diarthroses – freely movable joints, Limbs.
    Fibrous joints – dense fibrous connective tissue. Ex: Bone ends united by Collagen fibers
    a. Sutures – Little movement – bones of the skull. Some Cartilaginous joints. (Short fibers).
    b. Syndesmoses – connected to ligaments Example: membrane connecting the radius and ulna. Some Cartilaginous joints. (Longer fibers).
    c. Gomphoses – peg-in-socket Example: tooth in bone. Gomph meaning nail or bolt. (Periodontal Ligament). Immobile.
    Cartilaginous Joints – the bones come together united by cartilage and lack joint cavity and are not highly movable.
    a. Synchondroses – a bar or plate of hyaline cartilage unites the bone at the junction of cartilage. All Synchondroses are synarthrotic.
    b. Symphyses – fibro-cartilage unites the bone, is compressible and resilient acts as a shock absorber for limited moves, for strength and flexibility.
    1. Plane Joint – Non-axial movement, flat surfaces – Fingers, Carpals, Metacarpals, Interparpal joints, Intertarsal joints and between vertebral articular surfaces. GLIDING
    2. Hinge joint – Uniaxial movement, Elbow, interphalangeal joints Medial/lateral. Humerus and Ulna. FLEX AND EXTEND.
    3. Pivot joint – Uniaxial movement, Vertical Axis, ROTATION.
    4. Condylar joint – Biaxial movement, Medial/lateral axis and Anterior/posterior axis. Meta-carpophalangeal (knuckle) joints, wrist joints. FLEX AND EXTEND, ADDUCTION AND ABDUCTION.
    5. Saddle Joint – Biaxial movement. Concave and convex surface. Medial/lateral axis, Anterior/posterior axis. Carpometacarpal joints of the thumbs. ADDUCTION AND ABDUCTION AND FLEXION AND EXTENSION.
    6. Ball and socket joint – cup and socket Multi-axial movement – Shoulder and hips joints. Medial/lateral axis, Anterior/posterior axis. FLEXION AND EXTENSION, ADDUCTION AND ABDUCTION AND ROTATION.
    Synovial Joints – “joint eggs”- articulating bones separated by a fluid containing joint cavity. Ex: all joints of limbs, most joints of the body.
    Know what motions occur in each plane – Doing all Motions.
    a. Gliding – Waving, movements at wrist
    b. Angular Movements Head – Tilting head forward and back, Flex and Extend Head
    c. Angular Movements Vertebrae– Tilting hips forward and back, Flex and Extend and Hyperextension – bend and straighten
    d. Angular Movements Shoulder and Knee – Tilting forward and back, Flex and Extend and Hyperextending, extending arm forward in shoulder and bending knee and releasing and extending arms backward.
    e. Angular movements – abduction, adduction and circumduction of the upper limb at the shoulder, moving arm out. away from the body and in to the midline and drawing circles with hand.
    f. Rotation of the head, neck and lower limb – Turning head right and left, moving foot out and inward from the midline.
    Know the difference between OA, RA, and Gouty Arthritis. Also know who would be more likely to present with these diseases
    OA- Osteoarthritis is most common chronic arthritis, degenerative condition. Wear and tear arthritis most prevalent in aged more in women than men by age 85.
    RA- Rheumatoid Arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disorder 30 to 50. Three times more women than men. Joint tenderness, and stiffness in small joints fingers, wrists, ankles, and feet, bilaterally. Auto immune disease where body attacks it’s own tissues. Initial trigger, bacterial or viral influences. RA- begins in the synovial membrane of joints, Inflammatory cells, lymphocytes, macrophages, and others then migrate to the moint cavity from blood to destroy tissues. Causing joint swelling, abnormal tissue clings to the bone ends and scar tissue ossifies to fuse together bones and immobilizing the joint. Eventually leads to the replacement of joints.
    Gouty Arthritis – Uric acid a normal waste product of nucleic acid metabolism is excreted in the urine and when this fails to happen the build up in the body causes crystals to form in joints and soft tissues. Painful arthritis affects the joints and base of the big toe. More common in men than women because of the excretion rate with estrogens. Runs in families, genetics are implicated in immobilizing the joint, NSAID, Glucocorticoids advised and water avoid alcohol, high purine foods, no kidney, liver or sardines.
    What is the purpose of burse and tendon sheaths? The purpose of the burse and tendon sheaths are to contain the synovial fluid around the muscle tendons to aid in movement smoothly across one another.
    What is the purpose of all of the different synovial joint structures (synovial membrane, articular cartilage, ligaments, etc.) The purpose of the different synovial joint structures is to; A. provide stability in large and deep sockets and fit snugly together. B. Prevent undesirable movements and reinforce the joint. C. To stabilize the joints where tendos cross the joint.
    What is the primary contributor to shoulder stability? The primary contributor to shoulder stability of this ball and socket joint formed by the glenoid cavity of the scapula and the humeral head which allows all angular and rotational movements. It’s articular surface are shallow and capsule is poorly reinforced by ligaments therefore the tendons of the biceps brachii and rotator cuff muscles help to stabilize it.
    Which joints are more likely to dislocate? The joints that are most likely to dislocate because of the serious falls,. These joints, fractures must be returned to their proper positions. Joints of the jaw, sholders, fingers and thumbs are most common. The crepitus or crunching noise is often affected by cervical and lumbar spine and fingers, knuckles, knees, and hips which can result in osteoarthritis. Injuries from sports or accidents are mostly knees because of vertical strength and not horizontal resistance.
    In what position are the ligaments of the knee and hip tightest? When the knee is extended, side to side movements and rotation are strongly resisted by ligaments and the menisci. Tibiofemorol – patellar joint is a plane joint where the patella glides across the distal end of the femur during flexion. The medial and lateral ligaments are frequently torn free.

    • clayton vance
      November 4, 2013

      Forgive my ignorance but are you a professor, TA, etc.?

  3. tlohman2
    November 3, 2013

    Nice Dawn!

  4. Pingback: 3 major types of joints in the body | Stomach 36

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

Information

This entry was posted on October 31, 2013 by in A & P Study Guides and tagged , , , , , , , .
%d bloggers like this: