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The Cell, Tissues, Integumentary system, and Skeletal Tissues Study Guide

Hey guys! Well test 1 is here. Time to study! This study guide should help you focus. Remember it is not an all inclusive list, but if you know this stuff like the back of your hand you should do very well on the test. Good luck!

Test 1 Study Guide

  1. Which type of tissues composes the reticular/papillary layers of the dermis
  2. Which type(s) of tissue line the mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines
  3. What are the functions of adipose tissue?
  4. Where are osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts found?
  5. What are the components of connective tissue extracellular matrix?
  6. What is the basal lamina and what are its components?
  7. Which layer of hair (medulla/cortex/cuticle) is the strongest and what are some of its properties
  8. What is the difference between thick and thin skin?
  9. What is unique about the cells in the plasma corneum
  10. What is the function of mitochondria
  11. Which molecules can diffuse passively, and which require active transport through the plasma membrane
  12. How would various solutions (hypertoni/hypotonic) affect cell volume?
  13. Know the difference and the unique qualities of the various cell junctions
  14. What are the unique properties of dense regular connective tissue?
  15. What are the relative sizes of the different cytoskeletal rods
  16. Which type of cells would contain well developed golgi apparati/endoplasmic reticulum
  17. Where is the cell’s genetic material reside
  18. Where is ATP produced
  19. Know the unique features of each phase of mitosis. (Know Mitosis*)
  20. Which organelles are membranous which are non-membranous
  21. Where is new plasma membrane produced
  22. What do peroxisomes and lysosomes do?
  23. Know the difference between long, short, flat, and irregular bones
  24. Know the functions of skeletal tissues and know the locations of red and yellow marrow
  25. Know the functions of the different types of bone cells
  26. What do parathyroid hormone and calcitonin do?
  27. What is the functional unit of compact bone?
  28. Know the unique differences between the different muscle tissue types
  29. Where are the different bone cell types found?
  30. Know everything about the periosteum/endosteum
  31. What the heck is diploe?
  32. What are lamellae?
  33. What forces establish resting membrane potential
  34. What maintains the steep ionic gradients necessary to maintain resting potential
  35. Where does transcription/translation occur?
  36. Know the general function of each organelle
  37. What’s a codon/anticodon
  38. Where is the resting zone of cartilage located?
  39. What composes the plasma membrane
  40. Know the elements of the cytoskeleton
  41. How are long, short, flat bones formed
  42. Read all of the different membrane transport functions
  43. Know what is an inorganic and what is a organic component of bone
  44. In what types of tissue would you expect to find tight junctions
  45. What is endothelium and where is it found?

 

11 comments on “The Cell, Tissues, Integumentary system, and Skeletal Tissues Study Guide

  1. tlohman2
    October 13, 2013

    Hey Guys,

    Just wanted to give you a breakdown of how many questions will be asked from each chapter to help you focus your studying:

    Chapter 3 Cells: 31
    Chapter 4 Tissues:14
    Chapter 5 The Integumentary System: 10
    Chapter 6 Bones and Skeletal Tissues: 24

    Its 80 questions total with 13 true or false,10 multiple choice, and 57 dichotomous (like multiple choice but with only two options)

    Good luck studying everyone! Feel free to ask lots of questions

    Trevor

    • Dawn Fausner
      October 15, 2013

      Thank you Trevor for the update yesterday. I added your notes and understood them better after a review.
      Question. Where are the melanocytes found? Stratum Basal?
      Question. Are the t-rna on the ribosome or on the membrane?
      Question. The Actin filaments in muscle tissue and are used to lengthen muscle?

      • tlohman2
        October 15, 2013

        Yes, melanocytes are found in the stratum basale.

        Let me back up a bit here for t-RNA. Do me a favor and try and forget the image you have of t-RNA currently, because based on your question I think I may have done a poor job teaching it originally.

        Basically an amino acid binds to one end of a tRNA molecule, and the anticodon that corresponds with that particular amino acid binds to the other side of the tRNA molecule. The tRNA then “transports” the codon and amino acid to the ribosome in order to be added to the newly forming amino acid chain (a protein being translated from mRNA). This is a tough concept to put into words… you may be better served by looking at pictures. I am currently writing a summary of protein synthesis, and I will be sure to include some good pictures. Stay tuned!

        We won’t really dive into your third question in any great depth until we get to the muscular system when we learn about the actin myosin sliding filament mechanism of muscle contraction. Actin and myosin work together to shorten skeletal and cardiac muscle, smooth muscle uses a slightly different mechanism of contraction..

        There is actin in the cell’s cytoskeleton though… special types of myosin motor proteins bind to the actin here to deform the cell’s membrane. This is all a bit above and beyond what you will need to know for our first test though.

        Did that help at all? keep the questions coming they are great!

        Trevor

    • tlohman2
      October 18, 2013

      Hey guys! I’ve had some questions over email and I just wanted to take a second to answer them where you all could see….

      1.) What is the difference between interstitial fluid and extracellular fluid? To my understanding, they both describe the fluid outside of the cell. Is there a difference between those two or are they interchangeable words?

      A: Yes and no…. The interstitial fluid is a component of extracellular fluid. The extracellular fluid contains all fluid not found in the cells (interstitial fluid, blood plasma and other fluid compartments). Interstitial fluid on the other hand, is simply the fluid found in the interstitial space, or in other words the fluid found between cells inside of tissues.

      When lips get chapped, what type of skin is that? Or, how that can that type of skin be described?

      A. The portion of our lips that are red are made of non-keratinized stratified squamos epithelium. Capillaries here are very close to the skin surface here giving them the red appearance. Because there is not keratin in this epithelia, this tissue loses water and therefore can become chapped if not kept moisturized.

      People say it’s bad to touch other people’s blood (Hepatitis B, etc.). How could it get past the epidermis? Is this the only thing that gets past the epidermis, or are there other substances that can as well?

      A. Now I’m not an immunology expert, but I’ll make some educated guesses here. Remember the epidermis is not absolutely 100% non permeable, some things can get through in rare circumstances. That said however, I think the main reason we are advised to avoid touching contaminated tissues is that we may have small or barely visible scrapes/abrasions in our skin that we are not aware of. If there is any compromise in our dermis, then its protective functions go out the window.

      • tlohman2
        October 18, 2013

        Oooops, forgot to answer the second half of question 3. Yes other things can get past the epidermis. Anything lipid based can get past the epidermis, very very small amounts of water make it through the skin, certain lipid based medications like cortizone are actually converted and activated by our skin, and some heavy earth metals can make it through as well, AgCl for example.

  2. Ximena Musch
    October 13, 2013

    For number 9, did you mean to ask: What is unique about the cells in the STRATUM CORNEUM rather than plasma corneum?

    • tlohman2
      October 13, 2013

      I absolutely did! That was a test and you passed. So that said, what is unique about the stratum corneum?

      It’s water proof, it has lots of glycolipids and more keratin than anywhere else in the dermis, the plasma membranes are thicker here than anywhere else, the cells are all dead, and it’s the thickest layer of the epidermis (20-30 cell layers). That’s all I can think of off of the top of my head, there may be more.

      • Ximena Musch
        October 13, 2013

        Thanks! 🙂

    • clayton vance
      October 20, 2013

      I searched “hi and low” for that one.

  3. Yasmin Martinez
    October 20, 2013

    Professor Trevor,

    Question #21 Where is new plasma membrane produced?

    I don’t understand this question. Does this question refers back to the mitosis phases? I need help with this question PLEASE!

    Thank you

  4. tlohman2
    October 20, 2013

    Hi Yasmin,

    New plasma membrane is produced by the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Trevor

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This entry was posted on October 12, 2013 by in A & P Study Guides and tagged , , , , , , , .
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